| Republic of Prasia|
República de Prasia (Spanish)
|Motto||Libertad para todos|
|Government||Semi presidential republic|
|-Prime Minister||Cristian Ramirez|
|-Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Independence||7 August, 1823|
|Area||7,532 sq. km|
|Population||910,340 (2013 est.)|
|Currency||Prasian peso (PR$)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
Prasia, officially the Republic of Prasia (Spanish: República de Prasia) is an island nation in the south Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Peru. Prasia is a democratic semi-presidential republic. The capital and most populous city is San Luis.
The first settlers arrived in 1534 from Spain, and the country soon became a Spanish colony. Prasia became an independent republic in 1823.
Prasia is today one of Latin America's most stable and prosperous countries. Prasia is also an economically advanced nation, having a small yet highly technological economy. Its main trading partners are the United States, Chile and Argentina. In addition, Prasia is an associate member of the International Wiki Organisation.
The name Prasia is thought to come from the Latin word prasinus, meaning emerald, believed to be a reference to the emerald coloured foliage around the coastline of Segovia Island
Prasia is an archipelago located in the south Pacific Ocean, off the coast of South America. The archipelago consists of three islands, Prasian Island, Segovia Island and Zamora Island. Prasian Island is the largest, and is home to the vast majority of Prasia's population.
Prasia is divided into six regions, each with their own capital and municipalities. All six regions are ruled executively by a governor, and most regions also have a devolved state council, which holds the region's legislative power. The regions of Prasia are San Luis, Ortega, Valderejo, Ponedera, Catarina and Zamora.
Whilst the country's largest and most influential cities are San Luis, Adahuesca and San Ramon, there are also many smaller towns in Prasia, with the largest being Guadajoz, San Agustin and Montellano.
The country has a rich geographical landscape, with many mountains, valleys and a varied coastline.
Spanish colonial eraEdit
Europeans first discovered Prasia with the voyage of Juan Reyes Avila in 1534. During the voyage, Avila and his voyage visited southern parts of Prasian Island, including what is now San Luis Bay. Members of Avila’s voyage also reported a small island nearby Prasian Island, in what is believed to have been the first known sighting of Segovia Island.
A subsequent voyage led by Avila the following year saw the first settlement being founded in Prasia- San Juan, located 30 miles from what is now San Luis. Further voyages over the next five years saw two more settlements, San Vicente and Concepción, being established by other Spanish explorers. San Luis was founded in 1540, and quickly became the largest settlement in the country. Adahuesca and San Ramon were founded in 1580 and 1579 respectively, and settlement of Zamora Island began around the same time, with San Agustin also becoming an important settlement in the new colony.
Many of the first Spanish settlers came from the north of the country, and a number of settlers also came from Traspes, particularly after 1580 when Traspes started to become controlled by Spain. The first Traspesian voyage to Prasia occured in 1591, when colonist Felipe Suárez de Bordas founded the town of Cerques, in Valderejo. In 1542, Prasia became a part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, in which it remained until independence in 1823. During the early years of colonisation, most settlers settled in southern parts of Ortega and Ponedera, near San Luis.
Although Prasia did not offer the same mineral or natural resources as other colonies in South America did, early explorers still saw potential in the plains of southern Ortega and Ponedera as agricultural areas. Because of this, the new colony gained much economic momentum in its early years, with San Luis and several other nearby settlements becoming trade posts between South America and the Philippines throughout the 1580s.
Prasia was invaded twice by the British during the first decades of the Spanish colonial era, once in 1601 and again in 1618. During the latter of these invasions, San Luis was attacked and raided by the British navy, with the city's 16th century fort being destroyed.
Beginning from 1805, an anti-royalist sentiment became prominent in Prasia, with several riots occuring in San Luis, mainly protesting against taxation from Spain. These riots continued to become more widespread across the country throughout the 1810s. Meanwhile, Prasian culture began to experience these anti-royalist feelings, with many prominent cultural figures, such as David Angel Aguirre, calling for independence from Spain. At first, these riots were crushed as the Spanish tried to impose stronger rule but in 1819 the October Revolution took place. During this revolution, riots took place across the country, and there was even some combat in San Luis. The revolution culminated in the independence fighters capturing Plaza de la Republica, then called Plaza Isabella. For several days, republican flags flew over administrative buildings, but royalist forces were quick to re-capture them, and impose rule that was stronger yet.
Another revolution, which would finally culminate in independence, took place throughout 1822 and 1823, called the July Revolution. The revolution was sparked when a royalist leader was assassinated in San Luis, and involved a lot of combat throughout the country. During the revolution, a provisional republican government was established and a constitution was signed. On August 7, 1823 independence was declared by the leader of the independence movement, José Maria Alvear, in Plaza de la Republica, and the Republic of Prasia was officially established.
Independence from SpainEdit
Several days after independence, the Primera Junta was first established, which was the first independent government of Prasia, which lasted for six months, and made the Declaration of Independence. It was replaced with the Segunda Junta, which had representatives from across Prasia, whilst the Primera Junta only represented San Luis and southern parts of Ponedera and Ortega. The Segunda Junta ran the country until the formation of Congress in 1825.
Elections in 1824 chose José Maria Alvear as Prasia's first President. Congress was then established in 1825, with independent Eduardo Santos Garza commanding a majority of support and being chosen as Prime Minister, with the initial support of the military. He and conservative rival Jose Costilla struggled for power during these early years, with the military backing those likely to succeed. Eventually in 1833 army general Carlos Castro took power to bring stability and ruled until a popular revolt saw him ousted in favor of liberal Antonio Soto Mendez, an ally of Garza, in 1835. Mendez served as Prime Minister until 1840, having the military purged to ensure they could not oppose him. Whilst most of the first congressmen were independents, several clear factions had emerged within Congress by 1840, which saw rise to two major political parties, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. The Liberals favoured a federal system of government in Prasia, with regions being given a degree of autonomy in managing their affairs, whilst the Conservatives favoured a strong central government. After Juan Angel Contreras of the Liberal Party was elected as Prime Minister in 1840, he introduced liberal economic policies as well as compulsory, free and secular education. During his time as Prime Minister, there were also large levels of European immigration to Prasia, and as a resulted the country experienced a small population boom. This period was one of great economic stability in Prasia, which saw it become one of the richer nations in Latin America, and cemented Contreras' popularity. Despite this the heavy spending of the Liberals led to significant opposition from the upper classes, Conservatives and the military. In 1842 the Conservatives under Felipe Luna seized power with the support of some military units and promised to increase Prasia's funds and not "squander" them. Luna reduced some spending but for radicals it was not enough and in 1844 was deposed by the military, with Carlos Castro returning as PM. Luna was arrested and executed.
Castro's heavy-handed rule was largely unpopular and in December 1844 several colonels and majors deposed Castro, executed him and created a Tercera Junta to return to civilian rule. Jorge Luis Rojas of the Conservative Party was asked to set up a government, and elections in the spring saw him confirmed as PM with 51% of the vote. After a decade of Conservative rule, the Liberals were re-elected, seeing Contreras serve his second term as Prime Minister. Despite his popular, successful economic reforms, Contreras' party faced a lot of dispute with the Conservatives in regard to the federal system that the Liberals had implemented. This system had created the six regions of Prasia, each with much autonomy in managing their own affairs. This was an unpopular move in the Conservative Party, which led to two successive challenges to Contreras' leadership in the early 1860s. Eventually in 1863 this led to the Fifty Day War between government forces and Conservative militias. In this period Conservative leader Ramon Lopez Salazar took the capital and named himself Prime Minister, despite Contreras controlling the military. Contreras' own troops revolted in May 1863 and had him briefly arrested; Salazar was briefly replaced as PM by army Colonel Benjamin Rojas who intended to rule in order to finish off Liberal troops. When it became apparent he would not give up power after the Liberals' defeat he was assassinated and Salazar returned to power, ushering in a decade of political stability. Lopez Salazar was ousted by his deputy, Pedro Azara de la Rosa, who was more popular within the party, and defeated Salazar in a challenge for the party's leadership. He would be elected after general elections in 1868.
In 1875 Fernando Simon Ochoa became Prime Minister and ushered in a decade of Liberal rule. While not a dictator, it is commonly believed he was able to influence the 1875 and 1880 elections in his favor, though the Conservatives did not contest his rule initially. Due to public discontent there were minor disturbances by Conservatives during his second term, although for the most part, overall peace and stability was maintained. Populist politician and orator Juan Pablo Redondo was elected Prime Minister and after rigged elections in 1890 saw him elected by 76% of the vote, he proclaimed himself "supreme dictator". While he made significant reforms to improve the economy and industry, he was heavily criticized for almost no dedication to social reform and welfare, instead buying his support from the businessmen and landowners. Throughout Redondo's dictatorship, there was widespread opposition against his rule. In the summer of 1898, there were several riots demanding that Redondo left his position as dictator. He continued as dictator until his death in 1901.
Between 1901 and 1913 there was a period of stability after Redondo died and the dictatorship fell apart. During this period of stability, moderate conservative Francisco Villaverde implemented several social reforms, include giving women the right to vote in 1906, and enacting a wide range of reforms that benefited farmers living in rural areas of the country. Despite this there was significant discontent among liberals both in government and many who felt the government was not doing enough for the public, claiming corruption, embezzlement and elections fraud in 1906. Eventually Liberals began organizing armed groups against the Conservatives that broke into civil war in 1908. The Villaverde government, backed by a majority of the military, but desertion and the support of Ecuadorian President Eloy Alfaro for the Liberals saw the tide change and by 1910 they had taken control of the capital.
On May 6th a treaty was signed by the Liberal and Conservative factions which saw hardline Liberal Sergio Ruiz assume power. His heavy anti-Conservative position caused concerned among Liberals, who were weakened from the war and were fearful of renewed fighting. Ruiz was arrested and deposed by the party in August and moderate Juan Luis Molina was appointed PM by congress. He was often willing to concede a lot to the conservatives to maintain power and peace and was effective, but slowly the Liberals rebuolt their strenght and consolidated their hold on government, while still appearing weak due to Molina's compromises. Due to this a few hardline liberals felt that he had to be replaced. His deputy, Joaquin Mateo Blanco had him assassinated and took over as Prime Minister. Blanco's hardline stance paralyzed congress and caused tension with the conservatives. Populist reforms being enacted led to the conservatives, led by former army Major Antonio Martinez Jovellar to plan a coup with the military. In 1915 Blanco was arrested and Jovellar was proclaimed PM. He scrapped election scheduled for 1920 but due to fears of leftist insurrection devised a plan of rotation with the Liberals.
He gave up power in 1925 and was succeeded by Eugenio Lopez Dominguez, who gave way to conservative Alvaro Mendieta in 1930. The election of Liberal Eduardo Figueroa began to prove that the system could work, but soon enough he scrapped major sections of the constitution, scaled down the military and caused new friction with the conservatives. In 1941 army General Manuel Vazquez led a coup against Figueroa and rapidly aligned himself with Nazi Germany, though not actively involved in the war. The fall of the fascists in 1945, after several months of anti-fascist riots, caused unrest in Prasia and junior Colonels led an internal revolt and deposed Vazquez, quickly creating a military-civilian Junta to transition power to appointed Conservative leader Eduardo Frias.
Between 1955 and 1965 the country was led by successive Socialist governments, though until 1961 were largely more liberal in nature, needing support of other parties in government. After 1961, Prime Minister Miguel Escoboza began to implement sweeping socialist reforms and there were fears of a potential Marxist regime and allicance with the west. Elections were scheduled for April 1965 and it seemed that Escoboza was likely to be elected again. Despite being small, the US did not want to see another nation fall to Soviet influence and provided support to the military to take action if Escoboza was elected again. led by Colonel Alfredo Salva (1896-1978), large portions of the military rose up against pro-Escoboza generals and led an internal shakearound in early February. The next day, February 10 the military began a coup against the government.
Armed vehicles and soldiers rolled into San Luis and surrounded the Palacio del Congreso and other government office, setting up barricades and detaining politicians. Fighting broke out in the capital between the army and leftist militarymen, but they were dispersed and later arrested. Prime Minister Escoboza was arrested at Castillo Mendoza and committed suicide before being brought to court. Meanwhile, the then President Jorge Sanchez Peralta fled the country. Between February and July 1965 a State Junta for National Salvation, composed of military officers ruled the country, before Salva (now Mariscal y Jefe Supremo) was named President and Prime Minister. combining both offices.
Soon after there were reprisals against members of the Escoboza government and leftist activists, such as musician Manuel Castillo. Between 1965 and 1979 some 900-1100 people are believed to have been imprisoned, tortured or killed by the militry regime. Many leftists writers and intellectuals fled the country or were detained. By 1975 there was an increase in arrests as part of Operation Condor and the regime was backed financially by the United States.
Between 1969 and 1978 the government created the Agencia de Seguridad Nacional (ASNAC), which was responsible for monitoring the people and for most of the arrests and tortures. The government implemented privatization measures which drastically improved as a whole, as would be done in Chile, but for the average worker change was not always positive nor readily noticed. Salva's time as leader of Prasia also saw regional autonomy being reduced, with Salva overthrowing elected governors and putting his own allies in power.
Ailing health forced Marshal Salva to take on less duties as the 1970s went on and named Conservative politician Julian Rojas his successor. Salva resigned in 1977 and Rojas became President. Rojas was able to make a few reforms, including unbanning political parties and loosening the media. Under Rojas there were also internal changes to his party- to emphasise his support for democracy the party rebranded itself to become the more moderate Conservative Centrist Party. Rojas initiated this change to distance itself from Salva's right wing regime and move further towards the centre. The death of Marshal Salva in 1978 led to an increase in protests against the government, which reached a crisis in 1979 as there was violence carried out against representatives of the state, such as policemen, soldiers and widespread vandalism. The military initially used heavy force but the government instructed them to use restraint. Leftist guerillas began a protracted fight against the regime and executions and terror tactics saw them become effective against the regime. On October 22, 1979 soldiers of the Movimiento Revolucionario de Izquierda seized the presidential palace after fighting in the streets. President Rojas fled to Peru along with many other key politicians and military officers, but others were tortured and detained.
The MRI's leader, Juan Marquez, proclaimed himself president and head of a Marxist state. Sweeping land reforms were carried out and large-scale change was planned to reform the state. But, the general populace was wary of another dictator, even if leftist and populist. The military, largely weakened and dominated by the government began brewing plans for a coup to restore order. On 3 April 1980, military units and armed vehicles rolled into the capital and engaged in fighting with the MRI forces and other communist peasant armed groups. Within three weeks the military had seized power and a second State Junta was proclaimed to take order. Elections were planned for October 1980 and the Conservative Party, led by Vicente Navarro, was democratically elected into office with 72% of the vote. The military retained a heavy presence though 1981 given that there was opposition unrest over elections-tampering and vote-rigging. However, during this period several social and economic reforms were made as Prasia was seen to return to democracy, peace and stability, including widespread educational reform and continued regional devolution. Meanwhile, in 1983 the Socialist Party and the Liberal Party merged to form the Social Democratic Party.
The election of the Social Democratic Party spread fears of another Marxist government and military action but apart from a few minor incidents the conservatives transferred power without problems and the military stayed put over assurances that the government would not undertake radical reforms. Under the social democratic government of Luis Rodriguez this stability continued, though concerns over some policies led some junior officers to lead a failed insurrection in 1989. The PSD responded by ousting Rodriguez and replacing him with the centre-left, progressive José Manuel Barrera in 1990, to dispel any fears of a Marxist regime seizing power. Under Barrera's government several final reforms were made to ensure that the country would have a stable, democratic future.
During Barrera's term as Prime Minister reform and modernisation took place in Prasia's two main political parties, the Social Democratic Party and the Conservative Centrist Party, both of whom sought to distance themselves from the extreme movements of the past. At the General election, 1995, the Conservative Centrists, led by Pilar Ortiz, were elected. Ortiz subsequently became the first female Prime Minister of Prasia. The stability of Barrera's government continued under Ortiz, with major events in her ten year term including healthcare reform and closer foreign relations with the United States.
Ortiz's time as Prime Minister shaped a rivalry between Ortiz and Ana Maria Martin, the leader of the Social Democratic Party. The relationship between these two important political figures was one that lived up to much hype and speculation in the country's media. The Conservative Centrist Party continued to be popular throughout the early 2000s, although their majority in Congress was significantly lower after the General election, 2000. The next general election, in 2005, was won by the Social Democratic Party, and Martin became Prime Minister. In 2010, Martin resigned as party leader and retired from politics. In the ensuing party leadership election, Minister of Finance Alonso Sanchez was elected leader, and led the party into their second successive general election victory later that year. However, the party did not win enough seats to command a majority of seats in Congress, and entered a coalition with the Green Party.
Since Sanchez became Prime Minister in 2010, major events in Prasia have included economic recovery, the election of the country's first female President, and closer foreign relations with the International Wiki Organisation, which have culminated in Prasian troops being sent to fight in Lovia. Cristian Ramirez succeeded Sanchez as Prime Minister in 2014.
Prasia has a highly developed and industrialised economy, which has long had strong trade links with Latin America and the Caribbean. Prasia's economy is often compared to that of more economically developed South American countries, such as Uruguay, Chile and Argentina, as Prasia has a high GDP per capita, and a low percentage of the population living under the poverty line.
Despite its historically strong economic links with Latin America, Prasia has been strengthening international trade links with the United States and European Union, and forging new ones with IWO countries such as Traspes, Brunant and Kemburg.
Prasia's economy is mainly centered around primary and tertiary industries, with major sectors including tourism, banking, wine production and farming. In particular, most of the country's agricultural industry is centered around Catarina and Ortega. Prasian companies with a significant international presence include Telenueva and Banco de Ortega.
Prasia has traditionally been a liberal and progressive country, although political parties exist from across the political spectrum.
The major political parties in Prasia are the Social Democratic Party, Conservative Centrist Party and the Green Party. Several smaller parties exist as well, including the Christian Democratic Party, Union for Progress and Democracy and the United Left.
The head of state of the country is the President, who is elected every five years. The President has the right to veto any laws passed by the Congress, although this rarely happens, as well as being commander in chief of the military, and appointing the Cabinet on the advice of the Prime Minister. The incumbent president is Sofia Gimenez.
The Prasian Congress consists of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Members of the House of Representatives are elected every five years, and represent local constituencies, whilst the Senate is composed of members who represent regions of the country. Senators are also elected every five years.
The Prime Minister is the head of government, and is elected by the House of Representatives after each General election. In most cases, the prime minister is the leader of the party with the most seats in Congress. The Prime Minister advises the President as to the composition of the Cabinet. The incumbent prime minister is Cristian Ramirez.
Prasia maintains good foreign relations with much of the world. Its primary diplomatic and trading partners include Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru and the United States.
In addition, Prasia has been an associate member of the International Wiki Organisation since 2014, and is currently attempting to enter the organisation as a full member.
Prasia's military consists of three professional service branches- the Ejército Prasiano, the Fuerzas Armadas de Prasia and the Fuerza Aérea Prasiana. All armed forces are operated by the Ministry of Defence, and the commander in chief of the armed forces is the President.
Prasia has recently sent military equipment and troops to Lovia, after the Burenian invasion, acting as part of an IWO coalition operation.
Prasia has a population of roughly 910,000. Prasia's population has been increasing since 1990, due to a growing birth rate. Most of Prasia's population is of European descent, mostly of Spanish or Traspesian ancestry. A small percentage of the population is also descended from immigrants from Eastern European countries such as Ukraine and Poland, who settled in rural Catarina in the early 20th century. There are is also a sizeable population of Italian descent, especially in San Luis and eastern Ortega. Meanwhile, a large percentage of Prasia's population, with estimates ranging between 15% and 20%, is of mixed European and South American descent.
Spanish is the official language of Prasia, and is spoken by almost all of the population. The Spanish spoken in Prasia has many similarities to that spoken in Chile, although over time it has developed an accent and some vocabulary that is unique to other varieties of Latin American Spanish. Other languages spoken in Prasia include Italian, Portuguese and German, with a small percentage of the population speaking these languages, primarily due to immigration to Prasia from these countries in the 19th century, although the vast majority of these people also speak Spanish.
The main foreign language in Prasia is English, with many younger people speaking it as a second language. This became particularly true in the 1990s, due to the prominence of the teaching of English as a foreign language in Prasian schools.
The most recent national census found that Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion in Prasia, with between 55% and 60% of the adult population naming it as their religion. However, recent studies show that much of this Catholic population is not practising, as church attendance has been shown to be decreasing.
A large percentage, potentially as much as 20% of the Prasian population, reported themselves as being atheist, agnostic or non-religious. Furthermore, Prasia is officially a secular country, with the Constitution guaranteeing freedom of religion.
Prasia has a rich and diverse culture, mainly influenced by Spanish culture due to Spain's colonisation of the island in the 16th century. A more unique Prasian culture formed in the late 18th and early 19th century, around the time of the country's independence movement, with cultural figures such as poet David Angel Aguirre and philosopher and writer Juan Maria Espinosa and artist Eduardo Cardona helping to forge a unique cultural identity for the country. Later on, influential cultural figures included Hector Robles and Francisco Trujillo, who had lasting effects on Prasian art and literature throughout the early 20th century.
More recently, modern Prasian music, cinema, art and literature continue to have influence both within the country, and on South America and the IWO. Recent figures that have been influential on Prasian culture include film director Martin Sandoval and authors Teresa Alvarado and Ana Solis Calderon.
Media has a large effect on the culture of Prasia, with television, films and newspapers playing a prominent part in the country's culture.
Television is a particularly prominent part of Prasia's media sector, with the country's main television networks being TVP, Canal 4 and Telecinco. Meanwhile, the most circulated newspaper in Prasia is La Republica.
Sport plays an important role in Prasian culture. Football is considered by many to be the nation's national sport, and both the national team and the nation's football leagues (including the First and Second Divisions) have a keen following across the country. Other popular sports include rugby and athletics.
Prasia has a highly developed system of highways and roads, with the first of the country's roads being built during Spanish colonial rule, and the first autopista highways being built in the 1950s. In the present day, a system of autopistas links San Luis with other major cities.
Prasia also has a highly developed rail system, with the TAV high speed rail system linking San Luis, Adahuesca, San Ramon and Guadajoz. San Luis is also served by the San Luis Metro, the only one of its kind in the country.
Prasia is well connected with Europe and the Americas via San Luis International Airport, the largest and only international airport in the country. However, there are also two smaller airports, serving domestic routes; Adahuesca Airport and San Ramon Airport. San Luis International Airport is the hub for Prasian flag carrier, Aerolineas Prasianas.
Prasia has a long history of higher education, with the country having three universities. The largest and oldest university in Prasia is the Universidad de San Luis located in Villa Elisa, San Luis. The university was founded in 1852, and offers degrees in a large variety of subjects at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.
The government provides free, compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 and 18. Education in Prasia is largely a devolved matter, with regional governments taking responsibility for educational policy in their respective regions.
Prasia has a system of publicly funded healthcare, with public healthcare being provided to all permanent residents through a system paid for through general taxation, and that is free at the point of need.